Development of the baby in the first year

Children undergo enormous development in various areas in their first year of life. Many milestones are achieved in a baby’s first year. Development generally takes place from the head to the toes: first things like holding the head upright develop and finally the child learns to walk!

Development of the baby in the first year

  • What can a newborn do?
  • What can a child from 4 to 8 weeks old do?
  • What can a child from 8 to 16 weeks old be able to do?
  • What can a child from 16 to 24 weeks old do?
  • What can a child from 24 to 32 weeks old do?
  • What can a child from 32 to 40 weeks old be able to do?
  • What can a child from 40 to 48 weeks old do?
  • What can a 1 year old child do?

 

What can a newborn do?

Mental development

Many childless people deny the existence of emotional and social consciousness in newly born babies . Yet the baby listens intensively to the parents from day 1 and on the 9th day the baby already moves its eyes in the direction of the sound. From two weeks onwards, the baby even recognizes the parents . Around the age of three weeks, the baby turns its head in the direction of a sound source, and starts making sounds itself from about 3 to 4 weeks of age.
The newborn baby can see clearly at a distance of about 20 to 25 centimeters, so it is best to keep toys and the like at that distance from the face.

Social behaviour

The bond with a baby is primarily created through skin and eye contact. From a very early age, a baby tries to make contact with its parents by, for example, sticking out its tongue and moving its mouth. You can encourage this by responding to the child’s attempts to make contact, encouraging the baby to continue seeking contact.

Physical development

  • The newborn baby weighs an average of 3500 grams
  • The newborn baby is on average 50 centimeters long

The baby has the following reflexes :

  • Moro reflex: if you hit the mattress where the baby is lying, the baby stretches the fingers, bends the back (with the head backwards) and moves the arms and legs
  • Babinski reflex: if you gently tickle the sole of the baby’s foot from the heel to the toes, the baby will stretch the big toe and spread the other toes
  • Cheek reflex: when you gently caress the baby’s cheek, the baby will turn its head towards the movement, with its mouth open
  • Walking or stepping reflex: if you hold the newborn baby up under the arms just above a flat surface, the baby will make stepping movements with the legs
  • Grasping reflex: the baby firmly grasps everything that comes close to the hands

The duration of the reflexes is variable, but they generally disappear over time.
The newborn baby tends to keep its head pointed in the same direction, no matter how you place him or her. You can stimulate physical development by stretching and bending the legs and arms very carefully, for example while changing the diaper or doing the laundry.
The baby’s head is very large and heavy in relation to the rest of the body. You can stimulate the neck muscles by placing the baby on the stomach several times a day.
The newborn usually holds its hands tightly in a fist. Due to the innate and grasping reflex it will hold a finger firmly when it is given. This grasping reflex must be controlled before a child can grasp and hold objects. However, when the child is startled, he spreads his fingers.

Senses

The newborn can quickly distinguish between different tastes. When you sprinkle some sugar water on the baby’s tongue, the baby’s face will relax, when you drip salt water on the tongue, the baby will push your hands away and make a dirty face and when you put some lemon juice on the tongue, he will close his eyes, lips contract and sometimes even shiver.
A newborn is startled by unexpected sounds, such as clapping hands or slamming doors. The child will blink or open them wide.
A newborn likes to look at faces, especially the eyes or mouth. A newborn will follow your fingers when you move your fingers back and forth about 8-10 inches away.

Toys and games

The young baby cannot yet do much, he orients himself to the world by seeing, hearing and feeling. Bright, moving and sound-making toys are preferred by the newborn. Mobiles , rattles and teething rings are popular toys.
You can play with the newborn by humming songs and rocking the baby in your arms in time to the music.

What can a child from 4 to 8 weeks old do?

Mental development

Gradually the baby will begin to understand the technique of talking and experiment with making sounds with the mouth. The baby adapts its behavior to the tone and rhythm of the parent’s speech. You can help your child by making a lot of eye contact , using a lot of facial expressions and speaking to the baby from various sides.
Around the age of 8 weeks, the baby will start to laugh more and more and become interested in the environment. You can prop the baby up against a good supporting pillow.

Physical development

Babies have a strong preference for rhythm . You can accommodate this by playing rocking games and speaking to the baby in a sing-song tone.
The baby’s neck is still not very strong and will fall to the side if you do not support it properly. However, when the baby lies on its back, it can lift its head for a few seconds. You can stimulate the neck muscles by slowly moving various objects around the head into the baby’s field of vision.
When the baby is 6 weeks old, he can lift his head from the mattress and when you lift him into a sitting position, the head will move with you. The knees and hips become stronger and less bent. While changing you can stimulate the movement of the legs by gently stretching them. You can encourage lifting the head by holding a toy just above the field of view so that the baby has to lift the head to get a good look at the object.
Around 8 weeks, the baby will try to grab things and spread the fingers more. You can encourage this by placing the baby upright next to a pillow so that he or she can grasp the pillow. The child’s grip strength gradually decreases. To relax the fingers, you can gently stretch them one by one. Around 6 weeks, the grasping reflex has almost completely disappeared. Around 8 weeks you can get the baby used to different fabrics by letting him feel objects made of all kinds of fabric with his fingertips.

Speech

Learning to talk starts with listening carefully to others. The baby tries to imitate sounds and gestures. Around 6 weeks the baby recognizes the parents’ voice and around 8 weeks it responds to it. By talking a lot to your baby you stimulate speech and language use.

Toys and games

The young baby cannot yet do much, he orients himself to the world by seeing, hearing and feeling. Bright, moving and sound-making toys are preferred by the newborn. Mobiles, rattles and teething rings are popular toys.
You can play with the newborn by humming songs and rocking the baby in your arm in time to the music.

What can a child from 8 to 16 weeks old do?

Mental development

The baby slowly becomes aware of its own body and tries to discover it. The baby looks at the fingers and moves them, responds to the parents’ voice by nodding and smiling, moves the mouth and makes sounds of pleasure. You can stimulate your child by overreacting to your child’s attempts at contact and by portraying nursery rhymes with your body and facial expressions.
The baby becomes more and more curious and interested in new toys, new places and new people. The baby recognizes familiar places and habits. For example , as soon as the baby sees the breast or bottle, it will make excited sounds. The baby loves sitting upright; this way it can view everything around it.

Social behaviour

The baby turns its head towards the person talking to it and smiles when the parents enter the room. When feeding the baby, make and maintain eye contact.
The baby will slowly but surely smile at the other people in the environment and recognize them . The baby does not like to be left alone for long periods of time and cries when you leave him. Try to stimulate the baby by imitating him in everything he does.

Physical development

At 12 weeks the baby can hold its head upright all the time. When you place the baby on the stomach or put it upright, the head will hardly drop back. By regularly putting the child upright you stimulate the neck and shoulder muscles. To develop the arm muscles, you can place a toy just out of reach so that the baby has to extend its arms to reach the object.
To strengthen the muscles of the trunk, you can occasionally roll the baby over in a playful manner . When playing the peek-a-boo game, sit your child upright on a couch or something similar and move just out of the field of view so that the baby has to turn his body to see you.
The grasping reflex has completely disappeared; the baby will stretch his fingers more and more and look at them with interest. The rattle can be held for a while and shaken, but not yet picked up. The body becomes more and more mobile, for example the baby puts its legs together.

Speech

Around the age of 16 weeks, the baby can make and imitate a lot of sounds. The child will try to talk through sentences consisting of different sounds one after the other.
To master speech, the baby will prepare the necessary body parts by blowing bubbles, drooling and pursing the lips .

Senses

Although the baby’s eyes move independently of each other, they look at the same object with both eyes, creating a three-dimensional image. For example, hold a toy in front of the baby’s face, when both eyes are focused, the baby will react excitedly and happily.

Toys and games

You can investigate whether your child is able to distinguish subtle objects . You can do this by drawing various figures on pieces of cardboard, a small and a large triangle for example. Also draw these figures the other way around on the map, so the small triangle at the top instead of the large one. If all goes well, your baby will respond with reduced attention to the card he or she has already seen, and with renewed attention to the same figures on the card, but in the different order.

What can a child from 16 to 24 weeks old do?

Mental development

The baby will study objects for longer because the ability to concentrate has increased. The baby also smiles at his own reflection in the mirror, moves arms and legs and hits the bottle to attract attention.
Try to use your child’s name as much as possible and introduce your baby to each new person.
The baby learns to control his voice and use it in different ways to get your attention. The baby becomes more knowledgeable and shows what it likes and what it doesn’t like.

Social behaviour

The baby will show more emotions , such as shame, by turning his head away from others and laughing at people he knows. You can now communicate in four ways:

  • To cry
  • Sounds
  • Facial expressions
  • Gestures

The baby may greet you by grabbing your face and clinging to you.

Physical development

The baby now has full control of his head, even when he is sitting upright and you momentarily throw him off balance. To keep the head even better under control and stable, you can do rocking exercises, which means the baby has to keep the baby’s head stable again and again.
Around 24 weeks, the baby can push itself up with the help of its arms, with its hands extended forward to find balance. With the help of the arms, the baby can sit upright in the highchair for a while without assistance. Lift the baby when it extends its arms forward.
To stimulate the muscles and bones in the legs, you can play games such as letting the baby ride a horse on your lap .

Senses

The baby will put just about anything he can get his hands on in his mouth! The baby grabs everything within reach and enjoys tearing and crumpling paper.
The baby finds it difficult to transfer objects from one hand to the other and will drop an object in order to be able to pick up another object.
If you place a toy just out of the field of view, the baby will move in such a way that he can reach the object.

What can a child from 24 to 32 weeks old do?

Mental development

Your baby increasingly tries to start a conversation with you by babbling and starts using gestures and sounds more often to indicate his wants and needs. Most babies also recognize their own names . They often also want to eat themselves and thus show that they are independent.
The baby understands more and more words and therefore also the word no. The baby shows determination when, for example, he tries to grab a toy out of reach. Toys play an important role in the baby’s life. Water games are often a favorite.

Social behaviour

The child will touch other children when they are nearby and likes to play hand clapping games. The baby starts to explore others using hand touches.

Physical development

The baby can support himself on one arm when lying on his stomach and grab toys with the other hand. Many babies can already sit up unaided and carry their own weight (although they cannot yet maintain this) when you support them.
The baby will try to move by making a kind of sideways movement . When you pick up the baby, it may jump up and down, increasing the feeling of independence.
Your baby can transfer objects from one hand to the other, hit other objects with toys and eat with a spoon. The child slowly but surely learns to eat on his own, initially with his fingers, later with a spoon.

Speech

The mouth becomes larger, the palate more arched and the tongue smaller. These physical changes enable the vocal cords and associated muscles to develop further so that speech is possible.
Syllables such as ka and da are making their appearance and are becoming increasingly better pronounced. The child experiments with sounds, tones and pitches. When the child is about 32 weeks old, he or she can pronounce two-syllable words, such as da da. Babble when your child babbles, but use normal colloquialism as much as possible . When the child produces a recognizable word , repeat the word and reward her extensively, which will make the child feel proud and repeat the word more often.

Toys and games

The baby enjoys making a lot of noise and tearing up paper. Drums and some pots and pans are popular play objects, although often not from the parents. Block games are also starting to become more popular.

Skills

When your child is 32 weeks old, he or she should be able to perform the following exercise well: hide a toy under a cloth in the presence of your baby and then let the child do his thing. If all goes well, your child will go to the cloth and pull it off the toy.
In most cases, the baby understands height differences . Try putting your child on the table and letting them crawl around. If all goes well, your child will stop at the edge of the table. Always stay close with such games and exercises!

What can a child from 32 to 40 weeks old do?

Mental development

The baby recognizes familiar sounds and songs and responds to them in a certain, happy way. He turns his head towards you when you call his name, puts his hands forward to have them washed, but turns his face away when you approach with a washcloth.
Start by teaching your child regularity by building certain rituals around activities into the daily schedule, such as lunchtime. The child will quickly get used to this.
When you ask where is daddy? the baby will look for the father. You can start by reading books made of soft material.

Physical development

Your baby can carry its own weight and stand, but must be able to hold on to something. Your child can sit upright independently for about 10 minutes . Sitting down is very difficult for the baby when it is standing. The beginning of crawling occurs.
Around 40 weeks, the baby can propel itself on its hands and knees. He can pull himself up and likes to lie down from a sitting position. The muscles in the back become stronger, allowing the upper body to rotate when the baby is sitting.
The child will put fewer and fewer objects in the mouth and will reach with a finger for an object he or she wants. Some children can even lift something between their thumb and index finger. You can start playing pointing games .
You can stimulate the development of movement by gently rolling a soft ball towards the baby so that he or she can grab it.

Senses

The child will look for the source of sound, such as the clapper in a bell.

Speech

Around 36 to 40 weeks, the child begins to add sounds such as t, d and w to the speech repertoire and to imitate real language sounds. A child first learns the meaning of words in order to use them later.
The first dad or mom is pronounced, although no distinction is made yet between dad and mom.

Skills

Around 36 weeks, a child should put blocks in a basket when you ask him or her to do so, possibly with demonstration.
Object permanence also develops around the age of 36 weeks . This means that a child realizes that an object continues to exist, even if he does not see it at the time. You can test this skill by placing a sheet of paper between your baby and the paper after your child has picked up a toy a few times. If all goes well, your child will look for the object by moving the paper to the side.

Toys and games

Items such as cloth or plastic books and balls are becoming popular. Movable toys on wheels are also becoming increasingly popular. The child will experiment with various objects, such as blowing into a toilet roll and imitating animal sounds.

What can a child from 40 to 48 weeks old do?

Mental development

Your baby says the first intelligible word . He can also point to things in a book, although his concentration is not yet well developed. Toys are regularly thrown outside the playpen and stroller, like a game, with the idea that you can pick them up and give them back. Baby begins to understand concepts such as inside, outside, here and there.
The ability to concentrate can be stimulated by reading different books and magazines in short, understandable pieces. You can start with pointing games using a magazine. Take one of your child’s fingers, point to something together and tell them what it is. You can also do this with body parts , such as mom’s nose and dad’s ear.

Physical development

Your baby has more and more control over his body and can already crawl like the best! You can practice the beginning of walking by moving the leg when your child lifts a foot when standing. Praise him or her, especially when the baby does this on its own.
Slowly but surely the baby starts to move sideways and clinging to furniture. When you hold hands, the baby will try to walk forward. From the sitting position , the child can move in all directions, including turning around, without losing balance.
The child still finds it difficult to let go of objects without letting them fall out of his or her hands. You can stimulate this skill by giving your baby a box and putting objects in and out together.

Speech

Many babies say their first word in the 10th or 11th month, a real milestone! Baby learns the meaning of the word no and sometimes even shakes his head at this word.

What can a 1 year old child do?

Mental development

Your child is getting more and more crazy about cuddling and prefers to do this all day long. The baby starts to understand simple questions and even carries out some commands. Many 1-year-old babies recognize objects in a book and point to them when asked.

Social behaviour

The baby remembers certain rituals , such as saying goodbye and likes to make people laugh. It is wise to let your baby visit someone else every now and then without your presence, otherwise your baby may become too dependent on you.
The baby’s personality becomes increasingly clear and sometimes even accompanied by moods of determination and independence.

Physical development

The child crawls around the room on all fours like a bear! With the help of mom or dad, the child can even walk a few steps . To encourage walking, you can occasionally try asking your child to come to you if he or she is holding on to a piece of furniture and you are close by. You can also place the furniture a little further apart to encourage your child to let go of the furniture for a while.
Your baby can now throw things purposefully and no longer puts everything in his or her mouth. Like a real circus artist, the child even tries to hold two objects in one hand.
Baby must be able to follow a fast-moving object that is moved back and forth in front of the eyes. If this does not work, it is wise to ask a doctor for advice.

Speech

Around the first year of life, the baby can recognize and imitate animal sounds and say simple words such as goodbye when someone leaves the room.

read more

  • 6 week old baby
© 2024 ApaFungsi.Com