Leukemia in its various forms

Leukemia is a form of cancer that settles in the blood and bone marrow, leukemia is better known as blood cancer. Leukemia is an excessive production of diseased white blood cells. However, it is unknown what causes these white blood cells to become ill. Due to the enormous production of diseased white blood cells, normal blood cells are displaced. This causes a decrease in the formation of red blood cells, platelets and normal white blood cells. The decrease in red blood cells causes anemia, making you feel weak and lethargic. The decrease in platelets causes an increased tendency to bleed. Even the smallest impact can cause massive bruising, nosebleeds or internal bleeding. The decrease in good white blood cells lowers resistance, making you more susceptible to all kinds of infections. Leukemia can occur suddenly, acute leukemia, or develop gradually, chronic leukemia. Both types can occur in different forms.
Acute leukemia:

  • myeloid blood cells, these are the precursors of white blood cells.
  • lymphoblasts, these are the precursors of lymphocytes.
  • Monocytes
  • Chronic leukemia:
  • Myeloid blood cells
  • Lymphocytes

 

Acute leukemia

Acute leukemia can occur at all ages. However, acute leukemia of the myeloblasts is most common in the first five years of life. The symptoms always start with some vague complaints such as fatigue, nausea and little appetite. In a further stage, one suffers from sudden fever, fatigue, paleness and bleeding in the skin and mucous membranes. The gums may also bleed, a sore throat may occur and the tonsils and mucous membranes may become inflamed. The patient then becomes very seriously ill, has diarrhea and discoloration of the urine may occur. The spleen and lymph nodes may be enlarged.
Blood tests will reveal massive anemia. If the white blood cells appear in many abnormal forms, the existence of leukemia can be clearly established. The treatment for acute leukemia is to fight the infections with antibiotics. The leukemia itself is combated with cytostatics, better known as chemotherapy. This method of treatment has many serious side effects, unfortunately there is currently no other way to combat this disease. The future prospects with this disease are unfortunately unfavorable. The future expectations are 1 to 4 years. However, preventing the disease is not possible because the cause is not known.

Chronic leukemia

Chronic leukemia develops very gradually and initially there are no symptoms. Chronic leukemia can occur at any age, but is most common in young adults. The first symptoms are fatigue, dizziness, a feeling of heaviness in the upper abdomen, weight loss, loss of appetite, itching and night sweats. In an advanced stage, the temperature is slightly elevated, and paleness and subcutaneous bleeding occur. The blood test will show a shortage of red blood cells and an enormous amount of diseased white blood cells, which is decisive for the diagnosis.
The treatment consists of X-ray radiation and cytostatics. In an advanced stage, life expectancies are equal to the life expectancies of acute leukemia. A special form of chronic cancer is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This causes accumulations of small lymphocytes. The symptoms usually manifest themselves late, because the disease progresses so slowly. After a long time, pallor, a weak feeling develops and the lymph nodes become enlarged. The blood test shows a shortage of red blood cells and an excess of lymphocytes. The treatment consists of combating anemia through blood transfusion, combating infections with antibiotics and radiation and cytostatics.

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