Nutrition and diabetes

Diabetes or diabetes is not an easy disease. It doesn’t go away and you have to pay constant attention!

What is diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes mellitus is a disruption of cell metabolism. Especially carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in an increased glucose level in the blood or hyperglycemia.

Values?

In a healthy person, the average glycemia is between 70 and 120 mg/dl. The glucose level varies during the day, depending on the eating times.

  • In a fasting state it is always less than 1g/l
  • Immediately after the meal this can increase to a maximum of 1.8 g/l
  • 2 hours after the meal it should have fallen back to less than 1.2 g/l

This is different for diabetics.
In these people, even when fasting, the sugar content remains higher than normal. After food intake, the threshold of 180 mg/dl is exceeded.
The disease is primarily caused by a deficiency of insulin.

What does insulin do?

Insulin is needed so that the body can absorb the glucose present into the body cells. Insulin is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

Two types of diabetes.

There are two types of diabetes. Type I diabetics or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and type II diabetics or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  • Type I – diabetics:

Here the insulin deficiency is the result of the breakdown of the beta cells. As a result, insulin secretion is lost. Insulin is therefore required. They make antibodies against the body’s own beta cells, so type I is considered a chronic autoimmune disease.
This type is not a hereditary disease.
Type I diabetes usually occurs at a young age, which is why it is also called juvenile diabetes.

  • Type II – diabetic:

Hi there is no breakdown of the beta cells. There is a reduced sensitivity of the beta cells to the normal glucose stimulus, so that there is no insulin secretion. Heredity is an important factor here. Obesity is an important triggering factor. The sensitivity of the insulin receptors decreases in obese people, so that more and more insulin must be produced to process the same amount of glucose.
It is for this reason that type II diabetes is divided into two groups :

  • non-obese group
  • obese group

Type II diabetes usually occurs at an older age, which is why it is also called adult-onset diabetes.

Consequences of diabetes.

  • Glucosuria

When the glucose concentration in the blood is high, the kidneys can no longer absorb all the glucose from the renal filtrate. Glucose is lost through the urine together with a lot of water.

  • The patient has to urinate a lot –> polyuria
  • Loses a lot of moisture –> dehydration
  • Is abnormally thirsty –> polydypsia

The word diabetes means flow or flow and refers to frequent urination; mellitus means honey-sweet.

  • Weight loss and fatigue

Since the production of insulin completely ceases in type I diabetics, the cell can no longer obtain energy from the glucose and will look for energy elsewhere. The cell breaks down body fats to produce energy. There is also the breakdown of muscle proteins that is stimulated. The result is weight loss and over-fatigue.

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